The «Borea» want to take away the rocket «Mace» KB «ruby» is going to fight MBM «Malakhit» for the military order
The Ministry of defense is considering the possibility of building two nuclear submarines of the new project «Borey-K», said TASS source in the military-industrial complex of Russia. They will be fundamentally different from the strategic submarine cruisers «Borey» and «Borey-A» lack of ballistic missiles with a nuclear warhead «Mace». The new boat will be armed with cruise missiles, in connection with which it will be called a nuclear submarine with cruise missiles (PLARK) or a multi-purpose strike boat.
«If the decision is made, these submarines will be built under the new project «Borey-K» with delivery to the customer after 2027″, — the interlocutor of Agency told. Technical details were not disclosed. But they are, with a high degree of probability, we can say, and do not exist.
But as for the missile «Borey-A», then the options here a little. It can be the rocket used on the SSGN of the «Yasen» — the anti — «Onyx» and «Caliber». As well as a promising hypersonic PCR «Zircon», which at the time of delivery of the project will certainly be in service.
It should be said that the re-profiling of Boreas looks quite strange. There is one such precedent in the world, and it was forced. According to the treaties on the reduction of offensive weapons (start-1 and start-2) in the United States, it was planned to reduce the submarine-launched ballistic missiles «Trident-2».Of the 18 boats of the third generation «Ohio» should leave 14. As a result, at the beginning of the new century, 4 boats were converted into multi-purpose shock. American designers managed to shove into each boat instead of 24 ballistic missiles 154 cruise missiles «Tomahawk». At the same time modernization took place at the rate of 2-3 years for each boat.
But that was a necessary alteration of strategic submarines, so as not to cut them on the metal. Because the resources from these four Ohio remained fairly. But the St. Petersburg CB «Rubin», who created «Borey» and its subsequent modification «Borey-A», can be seen, at first glance, a very different task — to get funding for a new project. Although this project looks quite strange.
There is a PLARK project 885 «Ash», which, like «Borey» refers to the fourth generation. It has undeniable advantages, losing only built in triplicate American multipurpose submarine «Sivulf» («Sea wolf»). The basis of the American submarine strike fleet is the fourth generation of boats «Virginia». And «Ash», upgraded to the level of 885 M «Ash-M», in a variety of parameters superior to «Virginia». So what, it is asked, new to fence the city?
«Ash» and its modification were created in St. Petersburg marine engineering Bureau «malachite». Many years have passed between the original version of the boat and its modern incarnation. So «Ash» (K-560 «Severomorsk»), although it was commissioned in 2014, is, in fact, the Soviet development. «Ash-M» — Russian. The first boat of the modified project — K-561 «Kazan» — should come to the Northern fleet this year upon completion of the tests.
When creating «Kazan» designers «Malachite» was made a significant step forward compared to «Severodvinsk». Managed to reduce the noise of the boat due to the change of the contours and conduct of measures to reduce vibrations, and circuit noise within the hull of the boat.
Increased sensitivity and selectivity of the sonar station (gas). For what was radically changed the layout equipment and weaponry. The front part was freed from torpedo tubes, for the first time in the history of the submarine fleet they swept to the center, placing on the sides. The free space was given to the equipment of sonar, both passive and active. In addition to the nose antenna GUS «Irtysh-amphora» uses two sides.
The level of automation of processes on the Russian boat is higher, as evidenced by a significant difference in the size of the crews: on the «Yasen-M» 90 officers and sailors, on the «Virginia» — 134.
The «Ash-M» win and weapons. On it, 10 torpedo tubes against 4 have «Virginia», 30 torpedoes against 26, 32 cruise missiles against 12. And in terms of the quality of weapons, Kazan is in the lead, which is predetermined by the breakthrough in the field of precision weapons that Russia has made in recent years.
Missile weapons «Virginia» is represented by only one type of missiles — «Tomahawks». These are produced in large series of subsonic missiles designed to strike at ground targets at a distance of up to 1600 km. Their feature is that they are well protected from electronic opposition to the enemy, but have little chance of breaking through a powerful missile defense, which is carried out with the help of modern SAM. «Tomahawk» at a low speed and suffer more «sluggishness» that is a bad maneuver.
At the same time «American» no anti-ship missiles (RCC). Therefore, the fight against submarines and surface ships is entrusted to torpedo weapons. It can be assumed that the only American rocket «Harpoon», pretty outdated, was not taken into account by the designers of «Virginia» because of its low efficiency. In addition, in the case of equipping the boat, the PKR would have to make much room for the main weapon — the Tomahawks. And there is only 12.
Severodvinsk and Kazan have more diverse missile weapons. PCR «Onyx» develops a speed of 2.6 M. Their interception is very difficult for the integrated system of missile DEFENSE «aegis».
The caliber family of missiles is designed to engage ground targets (launch range — 2600 km), surface ships (range — 400 km) and submarines (the combat part is a self-guided mini-torpedo). Missiles subsonic, but in the final section of their speed increases to 2.9 M. the Launch is made from standard torpedo tubes caliber 533 mm.
All this, of course, is fine. However, the quantitative ratio of Russian and American nuclear strike submarines of «top quality» cannot but be depressing. We have, as mentioned above, the two boats of the fourth generation, capable to compete with the «Virginia» and not be at heightened risk of detection and anti-submarine defense of the enemy, — «Severodvinsk» and «Kazan».
Currently, the US Navy operates 18 submarines of the «Virginia» type. We are building another 5 boats project 885 M «Ash-M» — «Novosibirsk», «Krasnoyarsk», «Arkhangelsk», «Perm» and «Ulyanovsk». The last boat was laid in 2017. In total, together with Severodvinsk, there will be seven of them. However, it is not clear in what year this may happen. Four years ago, the Director of «Sevmash» promised that the company will fulfill all orders for «Ash» by the end of 2020. But, apparently, this optimistic period should be added 5-6 years.
However, then the US Navy will have 26 or 27 «Virginia». Due to the large series of buildings managed to reduce the time from laying the boat to transfer it to the Navy from 5 years to 3 and even 2 years.
This acceleration, associated with the debugging of construction technologies and the elimination of design flaws, is observed in the construction of Russian boats. However, there are longer periods. Severodvinsk was built for 21 years — from 1993 to 2014. But it was caused, first of all, by a long absence of financing. As well as the adaptation of Soviet development to more modern technologies.
The second boat, «Kazan», was laid in 2009, launched in 2017. And this year it is expected to transfer to the Northern fleet. But here also played a role that on «Sevmash» mastered, in fact, a new boat, deep modernization. Construction of «Novosibirsk» is faster, the full cycle of work should take 7 years. You see, the sixth and seventh boat will be built in 4 years, or even faster.
Should Russia catch up with the US in the number of modern, that is, belonging to the fourth generation, multi-purpose shock boats? Apparently, it is necessary. Because the existing nuclear submarines of the third generation — and they are in the Navy 24 units — inferior and «Ash-M», and «Virginia» on acoustic noise and the ability to detect the enemy Gus at a considerable distance. And missile and torpedo weapons do not meet modern requirements.
Here is a quantitative list of veterans: 949A «Antey» — 8; 671RTM «Pike» — 2; 945 «Barracuda» — 1; 945A «Condor» — 2; 971 «Pike-B» — 11. In this system are two parallel processes. Some boats are withdrawn from the Navy. Last week «sentenced» boat project 671RTM «Pike» «Daniel Moscow», which served in the Northern fleet since 1990. Some boats are upgrading, bringing them as close as possible to the fourth generation. Updated equipment, are equipped with missiles «Onyx» and «Caliber», and thermal torpedoes «Fizik».
It is quite clear that most of the «veterans» in the foreseeable future will be withdrawn from the fleet. And they need to be replaced. And for this, it is logical to continue the construction of the boats of the project «Ash-M». It is logical not only on the basis of quality but also the economy and technology. North sea plant «Sevmash» will soon learn all the nuances of production of this boat and will be releasing them with a high cadence.
To design the new «Bor» under the cruise missiles will have to spend a lot of money. And the time it takes considerably. Then for a long time, the new boat will be mastered in production. And in parallel, as usual, errors of designers will be corrected. Well, the finished product can be obtained at best by the end of the 30s.
Who benefits it? Certainly not the Navy. And not the shipbuilding industry, because it is much more convenient to «drive» a series of technologically debugged submarines. Moreover, there is quite an appropriate and even useful American experience in the construction of boats of the same type block by block, 5-8 boats in the block. At the same time, from block to block, their quality increases due to the introduction of the latest technological achievements.
It is advantageous, perhaps, only of KB «the ruby». Work on the modernization of the nuclear strategic submarine «Borey» to the level of «Borey-B» has not been approved. The boat of the fifth generation «Husky», on which the design Bureau had high hopes, went to the «Malachite». In this connection, the issue of financing the famous enterprise, which for many years created domestic submarines with ballistic missiles, rose sharply. The situation is sad.